TECHNIQUES

Symbols for techniques
used in printed ex-libris

Intaglio printing techniques
Original
C = Intaglio printing (blank); embossing
C1 = Steel engraving
C2 = Burin (graver or gouge) engraving, notably on copper
C3 = Etching, including direct (brush) etching
C4 = Drypoint, including crayon manner and stipple engraving
C5 = Aquatint
C6 = Soft-ground or sugar etching
C7 = Mezzotint
C8 = Intaglio engraving on linoleum, plastic or other materials

Reproductive
P3 = Heliogravure (manual line and tone photogravure), photogalvanography
P4 = Commercial photogravure, rotogravure
P10 = Etched steel printing (die-printing)

Relief printing techniques
Original
X = Relief printing (blank)
X1 = Woodcut
X2 = Wood engraving
X3 = Linocut
X4 = (Chinese) stone stamp
X5 = Relief-printed engraved or etched metal plates, notably metal cut
X6 = Relief-printed engraving of other materials, notably plastic

Reproductive
T = Typography, letterpress
T1 = Linotype, monotype, indirect letterpress
T2 = Photoxylography, facsimile wood engraving
T3= Commercial rubber stamp / timbre en caouchouc commercial
P1 = Line block (clichŽ) with or without photography
P2 = Half-tone, photozincography

Flatbed, stencil and electronic printing techniques
Original
L1 = Autolithography
L2 = Autography (transfer lithography)
L3 = Zincography
L4 = Algraphy
P9 = Original photograph
S = Stencil
S1 = Original serigraphy (silkscreen)
S2 = Mimeography (dye stencil)
S3 = Katazome and Kappa (oiled-paper stencil)
CGD = Computer generated design

Reproductive
P = Photographic reproduction
P5 = Collotype
P6 = Photolithography, process transfer lithography
P7 = Offset, including duotone
P8 = Serigraphic reproduction (photosilkscreen)
CRD = Computer reproduced design
Y = Photocopy, electrostatic screen printing

Other abbreviations
MT = Mixed technique, used when component techniques are not known
B = Braille
U = Technique not listed above, including Frottage, Chinese rubbing and collography
Number preceeding the technical symbols = Number of plates used
/ number after the technical symbols = Number of colours used
/ mon. = Monotype
/ col. = Hand coloured

Illustrations

Online Exhibitions 

1st International Ex libris Competition Ankara 2003

2nd International Ex libris Competition Ankara 2007

Contemporary Printmakings and Ex-libris Turkey

33. FISAE International Ex-libris Comp. - İstanbul 2010

Exhibition of International Ex-libris Collections - İstanbul 2010

Exhibition of Souvenir Pictures Congresses- İstanbul 2010


Old Books with Ex-libris Stamps - İstanbul 2010

Dialog: Daily News Project Istanbul 2008

Daily News Project 3

The Most Important
Ex-libris Museums

by Benoit Junod

The most important ex-libris museums are Frederikshavn, the Gutenberg Museum, the Sint Niklaas Museum, the Moscow Museum, the Museo Exlibris Mediterraneo in Italy, the Shanghai Fuxihanzhai Ex-libris Museum, the Nancy Library in France, the Ex-libris Centre in Bulgaria and the Lewych Museum in Odessa. The Frederikshavn has over 1 million ex-libris covering the whole history of the art; Gutenberg and Sint Niklaas have about 800,000; Moscow has about the same but with accent on Russian ex-libris. The MEM collection is smaller (based on Palmirani’s fantastic collection), but it is an active organizer of competitions, conferences, exhibitions, etc. which many of the others (except Sint Niklaas) don’t.
However, to these museums, it would be necessary to add the many very important collections which are in public institutions (libraries, graphic collections and museums) which are open to the public and works can be consulted. There are maybe 15 in Britain (of which the celebrated Franks Collection in the British Museum), close to 20 in Germany, about 5 in France, the same in the USA and in Austria (including the famous National Library collection which Claudia Karoly deals with). In Russia, both the Pushkin Museum in Moscow (Nadya Derkach) and the Hermitage in St. Petersburg have very important collections (the latter is said to have the best collection of early German ex-libris in the world). But maybe the highest concentration of public collections is in Switzerland – about 25, of which two in Geneva, five in Basel!
August 27, 2008

Organization
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